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|17||17||["Vitamin D and its pathway genes in myopia: systematic review and meta-analysis"]||10.1136/bjophthalmol-2018-312159||http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2018-312159||2018-07-17T16:26:52Z||["Ophthalmology", "Sensory Systems", "Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience"]||56||8||["0007-1161", "1468-2079"]||British Journal of Ophthalmology||<jats:sec><jats:title>Objective</jats:title><jats:p>To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association of blood vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D) concentration and vitamin D pathway genes with myopia.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods</jats:title><jats:p>We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for studies published up to 29 January 2018. Cross-sectional or cohort studies which evaluated the blood 25(OH)D concentration, blood 25(OH)D3 concentration or vitamin D pathway genes, in relation to risk of myopia or refractive errors were included. Standard mean difference (SMD) of blood 25(OH)D concentrations between the myopia and non-myopia groups was calculated. The associations of blood 25(OH)D concentrations and polymorphisms in vitamin D pathway genes with myopia using summary ORs were evaluated.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results</jats:title><jats:p>We summarised seven studies involving 25 008 individuals in the meta-analysis. The myopia group had lower 25(OH)D concentration than the non-myopia group (SMD=−0.27 nmol/L, p=0.001). In the full analysis, the risk of myopia was inversely associated with blood 25(OH)D concentration after adjusting for sunlight exposure or time spent outdoors (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.92 per 10 nmol/L, p<0.0001). However, the association was not statistically significant for the <18 years subgroup (AOR=0.91 per 10 nmol/L, p=0.13) and was significant only for 25(OH)D3 (likely to be mainly sunlight derived), but not total 25(OH)D (AOR=0.93 per 10 nmol/L, p=0.00007; AOR=0.91 per 10 nmol/L, p=0.15). We analysed four single nucleotide polymorphisms in the VDR gene from two studies; there was no significant association with myopia.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Conclusions</jats:title><jats:p>Lower 25(OH)D is associated with increased risk of myopia; the lack of a genetic association suggests that 25(OH)D level may be acting as a proxy for time outdoors.</jats:p></jats:sec>||9||["http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8352-6363", "http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0994-6196", "http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7914-4709", "http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2736-3541", "http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2156-1486"]||["Shu Min Tang", "Tiffany Lau", "Shi Song Rong", "Seyhan Yazar", "Li Jia Chen", "David A Mackey", "Robyn M Lucas", "Chi Pui Pang", "Jason C Yam"]||["14111515 (JCSY)"]||["General Research Fund (GRF), Research Grants Council, Hong Kong", "UBS Optimus Foundation Grant", "Direct Grants of the Chinese University of Hong Kong"]||[[""], [""], [""]]|
|21||21||["Association between frontal plane knee control and lower extremity injuries: a prospective study on young team sport athletes"]||10.1136/bmjsem-2017-000311||http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2017-000311||2018-01-14T01:10:19Z||||47||6||["2055-7647"]||BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine||<jats:sec><jats:title>Background/aim</jats:title><jats:p>Poor frontal plane knee control can manifest as increased dynamic knee valgus during athletic tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between frontal plane knee control and the risk of acute lower extremity injuries. In addition, we wanted to study if the single-leg squat (SLS) test can be used as a screening tool to identify athletes with an increased injury risk.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods</jats:title><jats:p>A total of 306 basketball and floorball players participated in the baseline SLS test and a 12-month injury registration follow-up. Acute lower extremity time-loss injuries were registered. Frontal plane knee projection angles (FPKPA) during the SLS were calculated using a two-dimensional video analysis.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results</jats:title><jats:p>Athletes displaying a high FPKPA were 2.7 times more likely to sustain a lower extremity injury (adjusted OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.23 to 5.83) and 2.4 times more likely to sustain an ankle injury (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.13 to 4.98). There was no statistically significant association between FPKPA and knee injury (OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.56 to 3.98). The receiver operating characteristic curve analyses indicated poor combined sensitivity and specificity when FPKPA was used as a screening test for lower extremity injuries (area under the curve of 0.59) and ankle injuries (area under the curve of 0.58).</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Conclusions</jats:title><jats:p>Athletes displaying a large FPKPA in the SLS test had an elevated risk of acute lower extremity and ankle injuries. However, the SLS test is not sensitive and specific enough to be used as a screening tool for future injury risk.</jats:p></jats:sec>||10||["http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3056-8169"]||["Anu M R\u00e4is\u00e4nen", "Kati Pasanen", "Tron Krosshaug", "Tommi Vasankari", "Pekka Kannus", "Ari Heinonen", "Urho M Kujala", "Janne Avela", "Jarmo Perttunen", "Jari Parkkari"]||||["The Foundation of Sports Institute", "the Competitive State Research Financing of The Expert Responsibility Area of Tampere University Hospital", "The Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture"]||[[""], [""], [""]]|